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4 Installing MySQL

This chapter describes how to obtain and install MySQL:

4.1 How to get MySQL

Check the MySQL home page for information about the current version and for downloading instructions.

However, the Internet connection at TcX is not so fast; we would prefer that you do the actual downloading from one of the mirror sites listed below.

Please report bad or out of date mirrors to webmaster@mysql.com.

Europe:

North America:

South America:

Asia:

Australia:

Africa:

4.2 Operating systems supported by MySQL

We use GNU Autoconf so it is possible to port MySQL to all modern systems with working Posix threads and a C++ compiler. (To compile only the client code, a C++ compiler is required but not threads.) We use and develop the software ourselves primarily on Sun Solaris (versions 2.5 & 2.6) and to a lesser extent on RedHat Linux 5.0.

MySQL has been reported to compile sucessfully on the following operating system/thread package combinations. Note that for many operating systems, the native thread support works only in the latest versions.

4.3 Which MySQL version to use

The first decision to make is whether you want to use the latest development release or the last stable release:

The second decision to make is whether you want to use a source distribution or a binary distribution:

The MySQL naming scheme uses release numbers that consist of three numbers and a suffix. For example, a release name like mysql-3.21.17-beta is interpreted like this:

All versions of MySQL are run through our standard tests and benchmarks to ensure that they are relatively safe to use. Since the standard tests are extended over time to check for all previously found bugs, the test suite keeps getting better.

Note that all releases have been tested at least with:

An internal test suite
This is part of a production system for a customer. It has many tables with hundreds of megabytes of data.
The MySQL benchmark suite
This runs a range of common queries. It is also a test to see whether the latest batch of optimizations actually made the code faster. See section 11 The MySQL benchmark suite.
The crash-me test
This tries to determine what features the database supports and what its capabilities and limitations are. See section 11 The MySQL benchmark suite.

Another test is that we use the newest MySQL version in our internal production environment, on at least one machine. We have more than 100 gigabytes of data to work with.

4.4 How and when updates are released

MySQL is evolving quite rapidly here at TcX and we want to share this with other MySQL users. We try to make a release when we have very useful features that others seem to have a need for.

We also try to help out users who request features that are easy to implement. We also take note of what our licensed users want to have and we especially take note of what our extended email supported customers want and try to help them out.

No one has to download a new release. The News section will tell you if the new release has something you really want. See section D MySQL change history.

We use the following policy when updating MySQL:

The current stable release is 3.22; We have already moved active development to 3.23. Bugs will still be fixed in the stable version. We don't believe in a complete freeze, as this also leaves out bug fixes and things that ``must be done''. ``Somewhat frozen'' means that we may add small things that ``almost surely will not affect anything that's already working''.

4.5 Installation layouts

This section describes the default layout of the directories created by installing binary and source distributions.

A binary distribution is installed by unpacking it at the installation location you choose (typically `/usr/local/mysql') and creates the following directories in that location:

Directory Contents of directory
`bin' Client programs and the mysqld server
`data' Log files, databases
`include' Include (header) files
`lib' Libraries
`scripts' mysql_install_db
`share/mysql' Error message files
`sql-bench' Benchmarks

A source distribution is installed after you configure and compile it. By default, the installation step installs files under `/usr/local', in the following subdirectories:

Directory Contents of directory
`bin' Client programs and scripts
`include/mysql' Include (header) files
`info' Documentation in Info format
`lib/mysql' Libraries
`libexec' The mysqld server
`share/mysql' Error message files
`sql-bench' Benchmarks and crash-me test
`var' Databases and log files.

Within an installation directory, the layout of a source installation differs from that of a binary installation in the following ways:

4.6 Installing a MySQL binary distribution

You need the following tools to install a MySQL binary distribution:

An alternative installation method under Linux is to use RPM (RedHat Package Manager) distributions. See section 4.6.1 Linux RPM notes.

If you run into problems, PLEASE ALWAYS USE mysqlbug when posting questions to mysql@lists.mysql.com. Even if the problem isn't a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the likelihood of getting a solution to your problem! You will find mysqlbug in the `bin' directory after you unpack the distribution. See section 2.3 How to report bugs or problems.

The basic commands you must execute to install and use a MySQL binary distribution are:

shell> gunzip < mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -
shell> ln -s mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> bin/safe_mysqld &

You can add new users using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI and Msql-Mysql-modules Perl modules.

Here follows a more detailed description:

To install a binary distribution, follow the steps below, then proceed to section 4.15 Post-installation setup and testing, for post-installation setup and testing:

  1. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and move into it. In the example below, we unpack the distribution under `/usr/local' and create a directory `/usr/local/mysql' into which MySQL is installed. (The following instructions therefore assume you have permission to create files in `/usr/local'. If that directory is protected, you will need to perform the installation as root.)
  2. Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed in section 4.1 How to get MySQL. MySQL binary distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names like `mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz', where VERSION is a number (e.g., 3.21.15), and OS indicates the type of operating system for which the distribution is intended (e.g., pc-linux-gnu-i586).
  3. Unpack the distribution and create the installation directory:
    shell> gunzip < mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    shell> ln -s mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
    
    The first command creates a directory named `mysql-VERSION-OS'. The second command makes a symbolic link to that directory. This lets you refer more easily to the installation directory as `/usr/local/mysql'.
  4. Change into the installation directory:
    shell> cd mysql
    
    You will find several files and subdirectories in the mysql directory. The most important for installation purposes are the `bin' and `scripts' subdirectories.
    `bin'
    This directory contains client programs and the server You should add the full pathname of this directory to your PATH environment variable so that your shell finds the MySQL programs properly.
    `scripts'
    This directory contains the mysql_install_db script used to initialize the server access permissions.
  5. If you would like to use mysqlaccess and have the MySQL distribution in some nonstandard place, you must change the location where mysqlaccess expects to find the mysql client. Edit the `bin/mysqlaccess' script at approximately line 18. Search for a line that looks like this:
    $MYSQL     = '/usr/local/bin/mysql';    # path to mysql executable
    
    Change the path to reflect the location where mysql actually is stored on your system. If you do not do this, you will get a broken pipe error when you run mysqlaccess.
  6. Create the MySQL grant tables (necessary only if you haven't installed MySQL before):
    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
    
    Note that MySQL versions older than 3.22.10 started the MySQL server when you run mysql_install_db. This is no longer true!
  7. If you want to install support for the Perl DBI/DBD interface, see section 4.10 Perl installation comments.
  8. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script itself, and in section 4.15.3 Starting and stopping MySQL automatically.

After everything has been unpacked and installed, you should initialize and test your distribution.

You can start the MySQL server with the following command:

shell> bin/safe_mysqld &

See section 4.15 Post-installation setup and testing.

4.6.1 Linux RPM notes

The recommended way to install MySQL on Linux is by using an RPM file. The MySQL RPMs are currently being built on a RedHat 5.2 system but should work on other versions of Linux that support rpm and use glibc.

If you have problems with an RPM file, for example Sorry, the host 'xxxx' could not be looked up, see section 4.6.3.1 Linux notes.

The RPM files you may want to use are:

To see all files in an RPM package:

shell> rpm -qpl MySQL-VERSION.i386.rpm

To perform a standard minimal installation, run this command:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-VERSION.i386.rpm MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm

To install just the client package:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm

The RPM places data in `/var/lib/mysql'. The RPM also creates the appropriate entries in `/etc/rc.d/' to start the server automatically at boot time. (This means that if you have performed a previous installation, you may want to make a copy of your previously-installed MySQL startup file if you made any changes to it, so you don't lose your changes.)

After installing the RPM file(s), the `mysqld' demon should be running and you should now be able to start using MySQL. See section 4.15 Post-installation setup and testing.

If something goes wrong, can find more information in the binary installation chapter. See section 4.6 Installing a MySQL binary distribution.

4.6.2 Building client programs

If you compile MySQL clients that you've written yourself or that you obtain from a third party, they must be linked using the -lmysqlclient option on the link command. You may also need to specify a -L option to tell the linker where to find the library. For example, if the library is installed in `/usr/local/mysql/lib', use -L/usr/local/mysql/lib -lmysqlclient on the link command.

For clients that use MySQL header files, you may need to specify a -I option when you compile them (for example, -I/usr/local/mysql/include), so the compiler can find the header files.

4.6.3 System-specific issues

The following sections indicate some of the issues that have been observed to occur on particular systems when installing MySQL from a binary distribution.

4.6.3.1 Linux notes

MySQL needs at least Linux 2.0.

The binary release is linked with -static, which means you not normally need not worry about which version of the system libraries you have. You need not install LinuxThreads, either. A program linked with -static is slightly bigger than a dynamically-linked program but also slightly faster (3-5%). One problem however is that you can't use user definable functions (UDFs) with a statically-linked program. If you are going to write or use UDF functions (this is something only for C or C++ programmers) you must compile MySQL yourself, using dynamic linking.

If you are using a libc-based system (instead of a glibc2 system), you will probably get some problems with hostname resolving and getpwnam() with the binary release. (This is because glibc unfortunately depends on some external libraries to resolve hostnames and getwpent() , even when compiled with -static). In this case you probably get the following error message when you run mysql_install_db:

Sorry, the host 'xxxx' could not be looked up

or the following error when you try to run mysqld with the --user option:

getpwnam: No such file or directory

You can solve this problem one of the following ways:

The Linux-Intel binary and RPM releases of MySQL are configured for the highest possible speed. We are always trying to use the fastest stable compiler available.

MySQL Perl support requires Perl 5.004_03 or newer.

4.6.3.2 HP-UX notes

The binary distribution of MySQL for HP-UX is distributed as an HP depot file and as a tar file. To use the depot file you must be running at least HP-UX 10.x to have access to HP's software depot tools.

The HP version of MySQL was compiled on an HP 9000/8xx server under HP-UX 10.20, and uses MIT-pthreads. It is known to work well under this configuration. MySQL 3.22.26 and newer can also be built with HP's native thread package.

Other configurations that may work:

The following configurations almost definitely won't work:

To install the distribution, use one of the commands below, where /path/to/depot is the full pathname of the depot file:

The depot places binaries and libraries in `/opt/mysql' and data in `/var/opt/mysql'. The depot also creates the appropriate entries in `/sbin/init.d' and `/sbin/rc2.d' to start the server automatically at boot time. Obviously, this entails being root to install.

To install the HP-UX tar distribution, you must have a copy of GNU tar.

4.7 Installing a MySQL source distribution

You need the following tools to build and install MySQL from source:

If you run into problems, PLEASE ALWAYS USE mysqlbug when posting questions to mysql@lists.mysql.com. Even if the problem isn't a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the likelihood of getting a solution to your problem! You will find mysqlbug in the `scripts' directory after you unpack the distribution. See section 2.3 How to report bugs or problems.

4.7.1 Quick installation overview

The basic commands you must execute to install a MySQL source distribution are (from an unpacked tar file):

shell> configure
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> /usr/local/mysql/bin/safe_mysqld &

If you start from a source RPM, then do the following.

shell> rpm --rebuild MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm

This will make a binary RPM that you can install.

You can add new users using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI and Msql-Mysql-modules Perl modules.

Here follows a more detailed description:

To install a source distribution, follow the steps below, then proceed to section 4.15 Post-installation setup and testing, for post-installation initialization and testing.

  1. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and move into it.
  2. Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed in section 4.1 How to get MySQL. MySQL source distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names like `mysql-VERSION.tar.gz', where VERSION is a number like 3.23.5-alpha.
  3. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:
    shell> gunzip < mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    
    This command creates a directory named `mysql-VERSION'.
  4. Change into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:
    shell> cd mysql-VERSION
    
  5. Configure the release and compile everything:
    shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
    shell> make
    
    When you run configure, you might want to specify some options. Run ./configure --help for a list of options. section 4.7.3 Typical configure options, discusses some of the more useful options. If configure fails, and you are going to send mail to lines from `config.log' that you think can help solve the problem. Also include the last couple of lines of output from configure if configure aborts. Post the bug report using the mysqlbug script. See section 2.3 How to report bugs or problems. If the compile fails, see section 4.8 Problems compiling?, for help with a number of common problems.
  6. Install everything:
    shell> make install
    
    You might need to run this command as root.
  7. Create the MySQL grant tables (necessary only if you haven't installed MySQL before):
    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
    
    Note that MySQL versions older than 3.22.10 started the MySQL server when you run mysql_install_db. This is no longer true!
  8. If you want to install support for the Perl DBI/DBD interface, see section 4.10 Perl installation comments.
  9. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script itself, and in section 4.15.3 Starting and stopping MySQL automatically.

After everything has been installed, you should initialize and test your distribution.

You can start the MySQL server with the following command, where BINDIR is the directory in which safe_mysqld is installed (`/usr/local/bin' by default):

shell> BINDIR/safe_mysqld &

If that command fails immediately with mysqld daemon ended then you can find some information in the file `mysql-data-directory/'hostname'.err'. The likely reason is that you already have another mysqld server running. See section 19.3 Running multiple MySQL servers on the same machine.

See section 4.15 Post-installation setup and testing.

4.7.2 Applying patches

Sometimes patches appear on the mailing list or are placed in the patches area of the MySQL FTP site.

To apply a patch from the mailing list, save the message in which the patch appears in a file, change into the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree and run these commands:

shell> patch -p1 < patch-file-name
shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean

Patches from the FTP site are distributed as plain text files or as files compressed with gzip files. Apply a plain patch as shown above for mailing list patches. To apply a compressed patch, change into the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree and run these commands:

shell> gunzip < patch-file-name.gz | patch -p1
shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean

After applying a patch, follow the instructions for a normal source install, beginning with the ./configure step. After running the make install step, restart your MySQL server.

You may need to bring down any currently running server before you run make install. (Use mysqladmin shutdown to do this.) Some systems do not allow you to install a new version of a program if it replaces the version that is currently executing.

4.7.3 Typical configure options

The configure script gives you a great deal of control over how you configure your MySQL distribution. Typically you do this using options on the configure command line. You can also affect configure using certain environment variables. For a list of options supported by configure, run this command:

shell> ./configure --help

Some of the more commonly-used configure options are described below:

4.8 Problems compiling?

All MySQL programs compile cleanly for us with no warnings on Solaris using gcc. On other systems, warnings may occur due to differences in system include files. See section 4.9 MIT-pthreads notes, for warnings that may occur when using MIT-pthreads. For other problems, check the list below.

The solution to many problems involves reconfiguring. If you do need to reconfigure, take note of the following:

To prevent old configuration information or object files from being used, run these commands before rerunning configure:

shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean

Alternatively, you can run make distclean.

The list below describes some of the problems compiling MySQL that have been found to occur most often:

4.9 MIT-pthreads notes

This section describes some of the issues involved in using MIT-pthreads.

Note that on Linux you should NOT use MIT-pthreads but install LinuxThreads! See section 4.11.5 Linux notes (all Linux versions).

If your system does not provide native thread support, you will need to build MySQL using the MIT-pthreads package. This includes most FreeBSD systems, SunOS 4.x, Solaris 2.4 and earlier, and some others. See section 4.2 Operating systems supported by MySQL.

4.10 Perl installation comments

4.10.1 Installing Perl on Unix

Perl support for MySQL is provided by means of the DBI/DBD client interface. See section 20.5 MySQL Perl API. The Perl DBD/DBI client code requires Perl 5.004 or later. The interface will not work if you have an older version of Perl.

MySQL Perl support also requires that you've installed MySQL client programming support. If you installed MySQL from RPM files, client programs are in the client RPM, but client programming support is in the developer RPM. Make sure you've installed the latter RPM.

As of release 3.22.8, Perl support is distributed separately from the main MySQL distribution. If you want to install Perl support, the files you will need can be obtained from http://www.mysql.com/Contrib.

The Perl distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names like `MODULE-VERSION.tar.gz', where MODULE is the module name and VERSION is the version number. You should get the Data-Dumper, DBI, and Msql-Mysql-modules distributions and install them in that order. The installation procedure is shown below. The example shown is for the Data-Dumper module, but the procedure is the same for all three distributions.

  1. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:
    shell> gunzip < Data-Dumper-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    
    This command creates a directory named `Data-Dumper-VERSION'.
  2. Change into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:
    shell> cd Data-Dumper-VERSION
    
  3. Build the distribution and compile everything:
    shell> perl Makefile.PL
    shell> make
    shell> make test
    shell> make install
    

The make test command is important, because it verifies that the module is working. Note that when you run that command during the Msql-Mysql-modules installation to exercise the interface code, the MySQL server must be running or the test will fail.

It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the Msql-Mysql-modules distribution whenever you install a new release of MySQL, particularly if you notice symptoms such as all your DBI scripts dumping core after you upgrade MySQL.

If you don't have the right to install Perl modules in the system directory or if you to install local Perl modules, the following reference may help you:

http://www.iserver.com/support/contrib/perl5/modules.html

Look under the heading Installing New Modules that Require Locally Installed Modules.

4.10.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Win32

To install the MySQL DBD module with ActiveState Perl on Win32, you should do the following:

If you can't get the above to work, you should instead install the MyODBC driver and connect to MySQL server through ODBC.

use DBI;
$dbh= DBI->connect("DBI:ODBC:$dsn","$user","$password") || 
  die "Got error $DBI::errstr when connecting to $dsn\n";

4.10.3 Installing the MySQL Perl distribution on Win32

The MySQL Perl distribution contains DBI, DBD:MySQL and DBD:ODBC.

4.10.4 Problems using the Perl DBI/DBD interface

If Perl reports that it can't find the ../mysql/mysql.so module, then the problem is probably that Perl can't locate the shared library `libmysqlclient.so'.

You can fix this by any of the following methods:

If you get the following errors from DBD-mysql, you are probably using gcc (or using an old binary compiled with gcc):

/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__moddi3'
/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__divdi3'

Add -L/usr/lib/gcc-lib/... -lgcc to the link command when the `mysql.so' library gets built (check the output from make for `mysql.so' when you compile the Perl client). The -L option should specify the pathname of the directory where `libgcc.a' is located on your system.

Another cause of this problem may be that Perl and MySQL aren't both compiled with gcc. In this case, you can solve the mismatch by compiling both with gcc.

If you want to use the Perl module on a system that doesn't support dynamic linking (like SCO) you can generate a static version of Perl that includes DBI and DBD-mysql. The way this works is that you generate a version of Perl with the DBI code linked in and install it on top of your current Perl. Then you use that to build a version of Perl that additionally has the DBD code linked in, and install that.

On SCO, you must have the following environment variables set:

shell> LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/progressive/lib
or
shell> LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib:/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/ccs/lib:/usr/progressive/lib:/usr/skunk/lib
shell> LIBPATH=/usr/lib:/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/ccs/lib:/usr/progressive/lib:/usr/skunk/lib
shell> MANPATH=scohelp:/usr/man:/usr/local1/man:/usr/local/man:/usr/skunk/man:

First, create a Perl that includes a statically-linked DBI by running these commands in the directory where your DBI distribution is located:

shell> perl Makefile.PL LINKTYPE=static
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> make perl

Then you must install the new Perl. The output of make perl will indicate the exact make command you will need to execute to perform the installation. On SCO, this is make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl.

Next, use the just-created Perl to create another Perl that also includes a statically-linked DBD::mysql by running these commands in the directory where your Msql-Mysql-modules distribution is located:

shell> perl Makefile.PL LINKTYPE=static
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> make perl

Finally, you should install this new Perl. Again, the output of make perl indicates the command to use.

4.11 System-specific issues

The following sections indicate some of the issues that have been observed to occur on particular systems when installing MySQL from a source distribution.

4.11.1 Solaris notes

On Solaris, you may run into trouble even before you get the MySQL distribution unpacked! Solaris tar can't handle long file names, so you may see an error like this when you unpack MySQL:

x mysql-3.22.12-beta/bench/Results/ATIS-mysql_odbc-NT_4.0-cmp-db2,informix,ms-sql,mysql,oracle,solid,sybase, 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks
tar: directory checksum error

In this case, you must use GNU tar (gtar) to unpack the distribution. You can find a precompiled copy for Solaris at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/.

Sun native threads work only on Solaris 2.5 and higher. For 2.4 and earlier versions, MySQL will automatically use MIT-pthreads. See section 4.9 MIT-pthreads notes.

If you get the following error from configure:

checking for restartable system calls... configure: error can not run test
programs while cross compiling

This means that you have something wrong with your compiler installation! In this case you should upgrade your compiler to a newer version. You may also be able to solve this problem by inserting the following row into the config.cache file:

ac_cv_sys_restartable_syscalls=${ac_cv_sys_restartable_syscalls='no'}

If you are using Solaris on a SPARC, the recommended compiler is egcs 1.1.2 or newer. You can find this at http://egcs.cygnus.com/. Note that egs 1.1.1 and gcc 2.8.1 don't work reliably on SPARC!

The recommended configure line when using egcs 1.1.2 is:

shell> CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O6" \
       CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O6 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
       ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory

If you have the Sun Workshop 4.2 compiler, you can run configure like this:

CC=cc CFLAGS="-xstrconst -Xa -xO4 -native -mt" CXX=CC CXXFLAGS="-xO4 -native -noex -mt" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

shell> CC=cc CFLAGS="-Xa -fast -xO4 -native -xstrconst -mt" \
       CXX=CC CXXFLAGS="-noex -XO4 -mt" \
       ./configure

You may also have to edit the configure script to change this line:

#if !defined(__STDC__) || __STDC__ != 1

to this:

#if !defined(__STDC__)

If you turn on __STDC__ with the -Xc option, the Sun compiler can't compile with the Solaris `pthread.h' header file. This is a Sun bug (broken compiler or broken include file).

If mysqld issues the error message shown below when you run it, you have tried to compile MySQL with the Sun compiler without enabling the multi-thread option (-mt):

libc internal error: _rmutex_unlock: rmutex not held

Add -mt to CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS and try again.

If you get the following error when compiling MySQL with gcc, it means that your gcc is not configured for your version of Solaris!

shell> gcc -O3 -g -O2 -DDBUG_OFF  -o thr_alarm ...
./thr_alarm.c: In function `signal_hand':
./thr_alarm.c:556: too many arguments to function `sigwait'

The proper thing to do in this case is to get the newest version of egcs and compile it with your current gcc compiler! At least for Solaris 2.5, almost all binary versions of gcc have old, unusable include files that will break all programs that use threads (and possibly other programs)!

Solaris doesn't provide static versions of all system libraries (libpthreads and libdl), so you can't compile MySQL with --static. If you try to do so, you will get the error:

ld: fatal: library -ldl: not found

If too many processes try to connect very rapidly to mysqld, you will see this error in the MySQL log:

Error in accept: Protocol error

You might try starting the server with the --set-variable back_log=50 option as a workaround for this.

If you are linking your own MySQL client, you might get the following error when you try to execute it:

ld.so.1: ./my: fatal: libmysqlclient.so.#: open failed: No such file or directory

The problem can be avoided by one of the following methods:

4.11.2 Solaris 2.7 notes

You can normally use a Solaris 2.6 binary on Solaris 2.7. Most of the Solaris 2.6 issues also apply for Solaris 2.7.

Note that MySQL 3.23.4 and above should be able to autodetect Solaris 2.7 and enable workarounds for the following problems!

Solaris 2.7 has some bugs in the include files. You may see the following error when you use gcc:

/usr/include/widec.h:42: warning: `getwc' redefined
/usr/include/wchar.h:326: warning: this is the location of the previous
definition

If this occurs, you can do the following to fix the problem:

Copy /usr/include/widec.h to .../lib/gcc-lib/os/gcc-version/include and change line 41 from:

#if     !defined(lint) && !defined(__lint)

to

#if     !defined(lint) && !defined(__lint) && !defined(getwc)

Alternatively, you can edit `/usr/include/widec.h' directly. Either way, after you make the fix, you should remove `config.cache' and run configure again!

If you get errors like this when you run make, it's because configure didn't detect the `curses.h' file (probably because of the error in /usr/include/widec.h:

In file included from mysql.cc:50:
/usr/include/term.h:1060: syntax error before `,'
/usr/include/term.h:1081: syntax error before `;'

The solution to this is to do one of the following steps:

4.11.3 Solaris x86 notes

If you are using gcc or egcs on Solaris x86 and you experience problems with core dumps under load, you should use the following configure command:

shell> CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O6 -fomit-frame-pointer" \
       CXX=gcc \
       CXXFLAGS="-O6 -fomit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
       ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

This will avoid problems with the libstdc++ library and with C++ exceptions.

If this doesn't help, you should compile a debug version and run it with a trace file or under gdb. See section G.1 Debugging a MySQL server.

4.11.4 SunOS 4 notes

On SunOS 4, MIT-pthreads is needed to compile MySQL, which in turn means you will need GNU make.

Some SunOS 4 systems have problems with dynamic libraries and libtool. You can use the following configure line to avoid this problem:

shell> ./configure --disable-shared --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static

When compiling readline, you may get warnings about duplicate defines. These may be ignored.

When compiling mysqld, there will be some implicit declaration of function warnings. These may be ignored.

4.11.5 Linux notes (all Linux versions)

MySQL uses LinuxThreads on Linux. If you are using an old Linux version that doesn't have glibc2, you must install LinuxThreads before trying to compile MySQL. http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux

If you can't start mysqld or if mysql_install_db doesn't work, please continue reading! This only happens on Linux system with problems in the LinuxThreads or libc/glibc libraries. There are a lot of simple workarounds to get MySQL to work! The simplest is to use the binary version of MySQL (not the RPM) for Linux x86. One nice aspect of this version is that it's probably 10% faster than any version you would compile yourself! See section 10.3 How compiling and linking affects the speed of MySQL.

One known problem with the binary distribution is that with older Linux systems that use libc (like RedHat 4.x or Slackware), you will get some non-fatal problems with hostname resolution See section 4.6.3.1 Linux notes.

isamchk hangs with libc.so.5.3.12. Upgrading to the newest libc fixes this problem.

When using LinuxThreads you will see a minimum of three processes running. These are in fact threads. There will be one thread for the LinuxThreads manager, one thread to handle connections, and one thread to handle alarms and signals.

If you see a dead mysqld daemon process with ps, this usually means that you have found a bug in MySQL or you have got a corrupted table. See section 18.1 What to do if MySQL keeps crashing.

If you are using LinuxThreads and mysqladmin shutdown doesn't work, you must upgrade to LinuxThreads 0.7.1 or newer.

If you are using RedHat, you might get errors like this:

/usr/bin/perl is needed...
/usr/sh is needed...
/usr/sh is needed...

If so, you should upgrade your version of rpm to `rpm-2.4.11-1.i386.rpm' and `rpm-devel-2.4.11-1.i386.rpm' (or later).

You can get the upgrades of libraries to RedHat 4.2 from ftp://ftp.redhat.com/updates/4.2/i386. Or http://www.sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/distributions/redhat/code/rpm/ for other distributions.

If you are linking your own MySQL client and get the error:

ld.so.1: ./my: fatal: libmysqlclient.so.4: open failed: No such file or directory

when executing them, the problem can be avoided by one of the following methods:

If you are using the Fujitsu compiler (fcc / FCC) you will have some problems compiling MySQL because the Linux header files are very gcc oriented.

The following configure line should work with fcc/FCC:

CC=fcc CFLAGS="-O -K fast -K lib -K omitfp -Kpreex -D_GNU_SOURCE -DCONST=const -DNO_STRTOLL_PROTO" CXX=FCC CXXFLAGS="-O -K fast -K lib  -K omitfp -K preex --no_exceptions --no_rtti -D_GNU_SOURCE -DCONST=const -Dalloca=__builtin_alloca -DNO_STRTOLL_PROTO '-D_EXTERN_INLINE=static __inline'" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --disable-shared --with-low-memory

4.11.5.1 Linux-x86 notes

MySQL requires libc version 5.4.12 or newer. It's known to work with libc 5.4.46. glibc version 2.0.6 and later should also work. There have been some problems with the glibc RPMs from RedHat so if you have problems, check whether or not there are any updates! The glibc 2.0.7-19 and 2.0.7-29 RPMs are known to work.

On some older Linux distributions, configure may produce an error like this:

Syntax error in sched.h. Change _P to __P in the /usr/include/sched.h file.
See the Installation chapter in the Reference Manual.

Just do what the error message says and add an extra underscore to the _P macro that has only one underscore, then try again.

You may get some warnings when compiling; those shown below can be ignored:

mysqld.cc -o objs-thread/mysqld.o
mysqld.cc: In function `void init_signals()':
mysqld.cc:315: warning: assignment of negative value `-1' to `long unsigned int'
mysqld.cc: In function `void * signal_hand(void *)':
mysqld.cc:346: warning: assignment of negative value `-1' to `long unsigned int'

In Debian GNU/Linux, if you want MySQL to start automatically when the system boots, do the following:

shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server
shell> /usr/sbin/update-rc.d mysql.server defaults 99

mysql.server can be found in the `share/mysql' directory under the MySQL installation directory, or in the `support-files' directory of the MySQL source tree.

If mysqld always core dumps when it starts up, the problem may be that you have an old `/lib/libc.a'. Try renaming it, then remove `sql/mysqld' and do a new make install and try again. This problem has been reported on some Slackware installations. RedHat 5.0 has also a similar problem with some new glibc versions. See section 4.11.5.2 RedHat 5.0 notes.

If you get the following error when linking mysqld, it means that your `libg++.a' is not installed correctly:

/usr/lib/libc.a(putc.o): In function `_IO_putc':
putc.o(.text+0x0): multiple definition of `_IO_putc'

You can avoid using `libg++.a' by running configure like this:

shell> CXX=gcc ./configure

4.11.5.2 RedHat 5.0 notes

If you have any problems with MySQL on RedHat, you should start by upgrading glibc to the newest possible version!

If you install all the official RedHat patches (including glibc-2.0.7-19 and glibc-devel-2.0.7-19), both the binary and source distributions of MySQL should work without any trouble!

The updates are needed since there is a bug in glibc 2.0.5 in how pthread_key_create variables are freed. With glibc 2.0.5, you must use a statically-linked MySQL binary distribution. If you want to compile from source, you must install the corrected version of LinuxThreads from http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux or upgrade your glibc.

If you have an incorrect version of glibc or LinuxThreads, the symptom is that mysqld crashes after each connection. For example, mysqladmin version will crash mysqld when it finishes!

Another symptom of incorrect libraries is that mysqld crashes at once when it starts. On some Linux systems, this can be fixed by configuring like this:

shell> ./configure --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static

On Redhat 5.0, the easy way out is to install the glibc 2.0.7-19 RPM and run configure without the --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static option.

For the source distribution of glibc 2.0.7, a patch that is easy to apply and is tested with MySQL may be found at:

http://www.mysql.com/Download/Linux/glibc-2.0.7-total-patch.tar.gz

If you experience crashes like these when you build MySQL, you can always download the newest binary version of MySQL. This is statically-linked to avoid library conflicts and should work on all Linux systems!

MySQL comes with an internal debugger that can generate trace files with a lot of information that can be used to find and solve a wide range of different problems. See section G.1 Debugging a MySQL server.

4.11.5.3 RedHat 5.1 notes

The glibc of RedHat 5.1 (glibc 2.0.7-13) has a memory leak, so to get a stable MySQL version, you must upgrade glibc to 2.0.7-19, downgrade glibc or use a binary version of mysqld. If you don't do this, you will encounter memory problems (out of memory, etc., etc.). The most common error in this case is:

Can't create a new thread (errno 11). If you are not out of available
memory, you can consult the manual for any possible OS dependent bug

After you have upgraded to glibc 2.0.7-19, you can configure MySQL with dynamic linking (the default), but you cannot run configure with the --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static option until you have installed glibc 2.0.7-19 from source!

You can check which version of glibc you have with rpm -q glibc.

4.11.5.4 Linux-SPARC notes

In some implementations, readdir_r() is broken. The symptom is that SHOW DATABASES always returns an empty set. This can be fixed by removing HAVE_READDIR_R from `config.h' after configuring and before compiling.

Some problems will require patching your Linux installation. The patch can be found at http://www.mysql.com/patches/Linux-sparc-2.0.30.diff. This patch is against the Linux distribution `sparclinux-2.0.30.tar.gz' that is available at vger.rutgers.edu (a version of Linux that was never merged with the official 2.0.30). You must also install LinuxThreads 0.6 or newer.

Thanks to jacques@solucorp.qc.ca for this information.

4.11.5.5 Linux-Alpha notes

The big problem on Linux-Alpha is that there are still some problems with threads in glibc on this platform. You should start by getting the newest glibc version you can find.

Note that before you run any programs that use threads (like mysqld, thr_alarm or thr_lock), you should raise the shared memory limit (with ulimit). The MySQL benchmarks are known to fail if you forget to do this!

Configure MySQL with the following command:

shell> CC=gcc CCFLAGS="-Dalpha_linux_port" \
       CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -Dalpha_linux_port -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
       ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

Try to compile mysys/thr_lock and mysys/thr_alarm. Test that these programs work! (Invoke each one with no arguments. Each should end with test_succeeded if everything was okay.)

After installing MySQL, uncomment the ulimit command in safe_mysqld and add options to increase shared memory.

Note that Linux-Alpha is still an alpha-quality platform for MySQL. With the newest glibc, you have a very good chance of it working.

If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly under high load) you may have found an OS bug with threads and signals. In this case you can tell MySQL not to use signals by configuring with:

shell> CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
       CXXFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
       ./configure ...

This doesn't affect the performance of MySQL, but has the side effect that you can't kill clients that are ``sleeping'' on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown. Instead, the client will die when it issues its next command.

4.11.5.6 MkLinux notes

MySQL should work on MkLinux with the newest glibc package (tested with glibc 2.0.7).

4.11.5.7 Qube2 Linux notes

To get MySQL to work on Qube2, (Linux Mips), you need the newest glibc libraries (glibc-2.0.7-29C2 is known to work). You must also use the egcs C++ compiler (egcs-1.0.2-9 or newer).

4.11.6 Alpha-DEC-Unix notes

When compiling threaded programs under Digital UNIX, the documentation recommends using the -pthread option for cc and cxx and the libraries -lmach -lexc (in addition to -lpthread). You should run configure something like this:

shell> CC="cc -pthread" CXX="cxx -pthread -O" \
       ./configure --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc"

When compiling mysqld, you may see a couple of warnings like this:

mysqld.cc: In function void handle_connections()':
mysqld.cc:626: passing long unsigned int *' as argument 3 of
accept(int,sockadddr *, int *)'

You can safely ignore these warnings. They occur because configure can detect only errors, not warnings.

If you start the server directly from the command line, you may have problems with it dying when you log out. (When you log out, your outstanding processes receive a SIGHUP signal.) If so, try starting the server like this:

shell> nohup mysqld [options] &

nohup causes the command following it to ignore any SIGHUP signal sent from the terminal. Alternatively, start the server by running safe_mysqld, which invokes mysqld using nohup for you.

4.11.7 Alpha-DEC-OSF1 notes

If you have problems compiling and have DEC CC and gcc installed, try running configure like this:

shell> CC=cc CFLAGS=-O CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
       ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

If you get problems with the `c_asm.h' file, you can create and use a 'dummy' `c_asm.h' file with:

shell> touch include/c_asm.h
shell> CC=gcc CFLAGS=-I./include \
       CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
       ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

On OSF1 V4.0D and compiler "DEC C V5.6-071 on Digital UNIX V4.0 (Rev. 878)" the compiler had some strange behavior (undefined asm symbols). /bin/ld also appears to be broken (problems with _exit undefined errors occuring while linking mysqld). On this system, we have managed to compile MySQL with the following configure line, after replacing /bin/ld with the version from OSF 4.0C:

shell> CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

In some versions of OSF1, the alloca() function is broken. Fix this by removing the line in `config.h' that defines 'HAVE_ALLOCA'.

The alloca() function also may have an incorrect prototype in /usr/include/alloca.h. This warning resulting from this can be ignored.

configure will use the following thread libraries automatically: --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc".

When using gcc, you can also try running configure like this:

shell> CFLAGS=-D_PTHREAD_USE_D4 CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure ....

If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly under high load) you may have found an OS bug with threads and signals. In this case you can tell MySQL not to use signals by configuring with:

shell> CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
       CXXFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
       ./configure ...

This doesn't affect the performance of MySQL, but has the side effect that you can't kill clients that are ``sleeping'' on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown. Instead, the client will die when it issues its next command.

4.11.8 SGI-Irix notes

You may have to undefine some things in `config.h' after running configure and before compiling.

In some Irix implementations, the alloca() function is broken. If the mysqld server dies on some SELECT statements, remove the lines from `config.h' that define HAVE_ALLOC and HAVE_ALLOCA_H. If mysqladmin create doesn't work, remove the line from `config.h' that defines HAVE_READDIR_R. You may have to remove the HAVE_TERM_H line as well.

SGI recommends that you install all of the patches on this page as a set: http://support.sgi.com/surfzone/patches/patchset/6.2_indigo.rps.html

At the very minimum, you should install the latest kernel rollup, the latest rld rollup, and the latest libc rollup.

You definately need all the POSIX patches on this page, for pthreads support:

http://support.sgi.com/surfzone/patches/patchset/6.2_posix.rps.html

If you get the something like the following error when compiling `mysql.cc':

"/usr/include/curses.h", line 82: error(1084): invalid combination of type

Then type the following in the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree:

shell> extra/replace bool curses_bool < /usr/include/curses.h > include/curses.h
shell> make

There have also been reports of scheduling problems. If only one thread is running, things go slow. Avoid this by starting another client. This may lead to a 2-to-10-fold increase in execution speed thereafter for the other thread. This is a poorly-understood problem with Irix threads; you may have to improvise to find solutions until this can be fixed.

If you are compiling with gcc, you can use the following configure command:

shell> CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
       ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-thread-safe-client --with-named-thread-libs=-lpthread

4.11.9 FreeBSD notes

The easiest and therefor the preferred way to install is to use the mysql-server and mysql-client ports available on http://www.freebsd.org

Using these gives you:

It is recomended to use MIT-pthreads on FreeBSD 2.x and native threads on versions 3 and up. It is possible to run with with native threads on some late 2.2.x versions but you may encounter problems shutting down mysqld.

Be sure to have your name resolver setup correct. Otherwise you may experience resolver delays or failures when connecting to mysqld.

Make sure that the localhost entry in the `/etc/hosts' file is correct (otherwise you will have problems connecting to the database). The `/etc/hosts' file should start with a line:

127.0.0.1       localhost localhost.your.domain

If you notice that configure will use MIT-pthreads, you should read the MIT-pthreads notes. See section 4.9 MIT-pthreads notes.

If you get an error from make install that it can't find `/usr/include/pthreads', configure didn't detect that you need MIT-pthreads. This is fixed by executing these commands:

shell> rm config.cache
shell> ./configure --with-mit-threads

The behavior of FreeBSD make is slightly different from that of GNU make. If you have make-related problems, you should install GNU make.

FreeBSD is also known to have a very low default file handle limit. See section 18.11 File not found. Uncomment the ulimit -n section in safe_mysqld or raise the limits for the mysqld user in /etc/login.conf (and rebuild it witg cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf) also be sure you set the appropriate Class for this user in the password file if you are not using the default (use: chpass mysqld-user-name)

If you have a problem with SELECT NOW() returning values in GMT and not your local time, you have to set the TZ environment variable to your current timezone. This should be done for the environment in which the server runs, for example, in safe_mysqld or mysql.server.

To get a secure and stable system you should only use FreeBSD kernels that are marked -STABLE

4.11.10 NetBSD notes

To compile on NetBSD you need GNU make. Otherwise the compile will crash when make tries to run lint on C++ files.

4.11.11 BSD/OS notes

4.11.11.1 BSD/OS 2.x notes

If you get the following error when compiling MySQL, your ulimit value for virtual memory is too low:

item_func.h: In method `Item_func_ge::Item_func_ge(const Item_func_ge &)':
item_func.h:28: virtual memory exhausted
make[2]: *** [item_func.o] Error 1

Try using ulimit -v 80000 and run make again. If this doesn't work and you are using bash, try switching to csh or sh; some BSDI users have reported problems with bash and ulimit.

If you are using gcc, you may also use have to use the --with-low-memory flag for configure to be able to compile `sql_yacc.cc'.

If you have a problem with SELECT NOW() returning values in GMT and not your local time, you have to set the TZ environment variable to your current timezone. This should be done for the environment in which the server runs, for example in safe_mysqld or mysql.server.

4.11.11.2 BSD/OS 3.x notes

Upgrade to BSD/OS 3.1. If that is not possible, install BSDIpatch M300-038.

Use the following command when configuring MySQL:

shell> env CXX=shlicc++ CC=shlicc2 \
       ./configure \
           --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
           --localstatedir=/var/mysql \
           --without-perl \
           --with-unix-socket-path=/var/mysql/mysql.sock

The following is also known to work:

shell> env CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
       ./configure \
           --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
           --with-unix-socket-path=/var/mysql/mysql.sock

You can change the directory locations if you wish, or just use the defaults by not specifying any locations.

If you have problems with performance under heavy load, try using the --skip-thread-priority option to safe_mysqld! This will run all threads with the same priority; on BSDI 3.1, this gives better performance (at least until BSDI fixes their thread scheduler).

If you get the error virtual memory exhausted while compiling, you should try using ulimit -v 80000 and run make again. If this doesn't work and you are using bash, try switching to csh or sh; some BSDI users have reported problems with bash and ulimit.

4.11.11.3 BSD/OS 4.x notes

BSDI 4.x has some thread related bugs. If you want to use MySQL on this, you should install all thread related patches. At least M400-023 should be installed.

4.11.12 SCO notes

The current port is tested only on a ``sco3.2v5.0.4'' and ``sco3.2v5.0.5'' system. There has also been a lot of progress on a port to ``sco 3.2v4.2''.

  1. For OpenServer 5.0.X you need to use GDS in Skunkware 95 (95q4c). This is necessary because GNU gcc 2.7.2 in Skunkware 97 does not have GNU as. You can also use egcs 1.1.2 or newer http://www.egcs.com/. If you are using egcs 1.1.2 you have to execute the following command:
    shell> cp -p /usr/include/pthread/stdtypes.h /usr/local/lib/gcc-lib/i386-pc-sco3.2v5.0.5/egcs-2.91.66/include/pthread/
    
  2. You need the port of GCC 2.5.? for this product and the Development system. They are required on this version of SCO UNIX. You cannot just use the GCC Dev system.
  3. You should get the FSU Pthreads package and install it first. This can be found at http://www.cs.wustl.edu/~schmidt/ACE_wrappers/FSU-threads.tar.gz. You can also get a precompiled package from ftp://www.mysql.com/pub/mysql/Downloads/SCO/FSU-threads-3.5c.tar.gz.
  4. FSU Pthreads can be compiled with SCO UNIX 4.2 with tcpip. Or OpenServer 3.0 or Open Desktop 3.0 (OS 3.0 ODT 3.0), with the SCO Development System installed using a good port of GCC 2.5.X ODT or OS 3.0 you will need a good port of GCC 2.5.? There are a lot of problems without a good port. The port for this product requires the SCO UNIX Development system. Without it, you are missing the libraries and the linker that is needed.
  5. To build FSU Pthreads on your system, do the following:
    1. Run ./configure in the `threads/src' directory and select the SCO OpenServer option. This command copies `Makefile.SCO5' to `Makefile'.
    2. Run make.
    3. To install in the default `/usr/include' directory, login as root, then cd to the `thread/src' directory, and run make install.
  6. Remember to use GNU make when making MySQL.
  7. On OSR 5.0.5, you should use the following configure line:
    shell> CC="gcc -DSCO" CXX="gcc -DSCO" ./configure
    
    The -DSCO is needed to help configure detect some thread functions properly. If you forget -DSCO, you will get the following error message while compiling:
    my_pthread.c: In function `my_pthread_mutex_init':
    my_pthread.c:374: `pthread_mutexattr_default' undeclared (first use this function)
    
  8. If you don't start safe_mysqld as root, you probably will get only the default 110 open files per process. mysqld will write a note about this in the log file.
  9. With SCO 3.2V5.0.5, you should use a FSU Pthreads version 3.5c or newer. The following configure command should work:
    shell> CC="gcc -belf" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared
    
  10. With SCO 3.2V4.2, you should use a FSU Pthreads version 3.5c or newer. The following configure command should work:
    shell> CFLAGS="-D_XOPEN_XPG4" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-D_XOPEN_XPG4" \
           ./configure \
               --with-debug --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
               --with-named-thread-libs="-lgthreads -lsocket -lgen -lgthreads" \
               --with-named-curses-libs="-lcurses"
    
    You may get some problems with some include files. In this case, you can find new SCO-specific include files at ftp://www.mysql.com/pub/mysql/Downloads/SCO/SCO-3.2v4.2-includes.tar.gz. You should unpack this file in the `include' directory of your MySQL source tree.

SCO development notes:

If you want to install DBI on SCO, you have to edit the `Makefiles' in DBI-xxx and each subdirectory:

OLD:                                  NEW:
CC = cc                               CC = gcc -belf
CCCDLFLAGS = -KPIC -W1,-Bexport       CCCDLFLAGS = -fpic
CCDLFLAGS = -wl,-Bexport              CCDLFLAGS =

LD = ld                               LD = gcc -belf -G -fpic
LDDLFLAGS = -G -L/usr/local/lib       LDDLFLAGS = -L/usr/local/lib
LDFLAGS = -belf -L/usr/local/lib      LDFLAGS = -L/usr/local/lib

LD = ld                               LD = gcc -belf -G -fpic
OPTIMISE = -Od         		      OPTIMISE = -O1

OLD:
CCCFLAGS = -belf -dy -w0 -U M_XENIX -DPERL_SCO5 -I/usr/local/include

NEW:
CCFLAGS = -U M_XENIX -DPERL_SCO5 -I/usr/local/include

This is because the Perl dynaloader will not load the DBI modules if they were compiled with icc or cc.

Perl works best when compiled with cc.

4.11.13 SCO Unixware 7.0 notes

You must use a version of MySQL at least as recent as 3.22.13, since that version fixes some portability problems under Unixware.

We have been able to compile MySQL with the following configure command on UnixWare 7.0.1:

shell> CC=cc CXX=CC ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

4.11.14 IBM-AIX notes

Automatic detection of xlC is missing from Autoconf, so a configure command something like this is needed when using the IBM compiler:

shell> CC="xlc_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -DHAVE_INT_8_16_32" \
       CXX="xlC_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -DHAVE_INT_8_16_32" \
       ./configure

If you are using egcs to compile MySQL, you MUST use the -fno-exceptions flag, as the exception handling in egcs is not thread-safe! (This is tested with egcs 1.1.) We recommend the following configure line with egcs and gcc on AIX:

shell> CXX=gcc \
       CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
       ./configure --prefix=/home/monty --with-debug --with-low-memory

If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly under high load) you may have found an OS bug with threads and signals. In this case you can tell MySQL not to use signals by configuring with:

shell> CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM CXX=gcc \
       CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM" \
       ./configure --prefix=/home/monty --with-debug --with-low-memory

This doesn't affect the performance of MySQL, but has the side effect that you can't kill clients that are ``sleeping'' on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown. Instead, the client will die when it issues its next command.

4.11.15 HP-UX notes

There are a couple of ``small'' problems when compiling MySQL on HP-UX. We recommend that you use gcc instead of the HP-UX native compiler, because gcc produces better code!

We recommend one to use gcc 2.95 on HP-UX. Don't use high optimization flags (like -O6) as this may not be safe on HP-UX.

Note that MIT-pthreads can't be compiled with the HP-UX compiler, because it can't compile .S (assembler) files.

The following configure line should work:

CFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include" CXXFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" CXX=gcc ./configure --with-pthread --with-named-thread-libs='-ldce' --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared

If you are compiling gcc 2.95 yourself, you should NOT link it with the DCE libraries (libdce.a or libcma.a) if you want to compile MySQL with MIT-pthreads. If you mix the DCE and MIT-pthreads packages you will get a mysqld to which you cannot connect. Remove the DCE libraries while you compile gcc 2.95!

4.12 Win32 notes

This section describes installation and use of MySQL on Win32. This is also described in the `README' file that comes with the MySQL Win32 distribution.

4.12.1 Installing MySQL on Win32

If you don't have a registered version of MySQL, you should first download the shareware version from:

MySQL 3.21.29

If you plan to connect to MySQL from some other program, you will probably also need the MyODBC driver. You can find this at the MySQL download page.

To install either distribution, unzip it in some empty directory and run the Setup.exe program.

By default, MySQL-Win32 is configured to be installed in `C:\mysql'. If you want to install MySQL elsewhere, install it in `C:\mysql', then move the installation to where you want it. If you do move MySQL, you must tell mysqld where everything is by supplying options to mysqld. Use C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --help to display all options! For example, if you have moved the MySQL distribution to `D:\programs\mysql', you must start mysqld with: D:\programs\mysql\bin\mysqld --basedir D:\programs\mysql

With the registered version of MySQL, you can also create a `C:\my.cnf' file that holds any default options for the MySQL server. Copy the file `\mysql\my-example.cnf' to `C:\my.cnf' and edit this to suit your setup. Note that you should specify all paths with / instead of \. If you use \, you need to specify this twice, as \ is the escape character in MySQL. See section 4.15.4 Option files.

4.12.2 Starting MySQL on Win95 / Win98

MySQL uses TCP/IP to connect a client to a server. (This will allow any machine on your network to connect to your MySQL server). Because of this, you must install TCP/IP on your machine before starting MySQL. You can find TCP/IP on your Windows CD-ROM.

Note that if you are using an old Win95 release (for example OSR2), it's likely that you have an old Winsock package! MySQL requires Winsock 2! You can get the newest Winsock from Microsoft. Win98 has as default the new Winsock 2 library, so the above doesn't apply for Win98.

There are 2 different MySQL servers you can use:

mysqld Compiled with full debugging and automatic memory allocation checking
mysqld-opt Optimized for a Pentium processor.

Both of the above should work on any Intel processor >= i386.

To start the mysqld server, you should start a MS-DOS window and type:

C:\mysql\bin\mysqld

This will start mysqld in the background without a window.

You can kill the MySQL server by executing:

C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root shutdown

Note that Win95/Win98 don't support creation of named pipes. On Win95/Win98, you can only use named pipes to connect to a remote MySQL running on an NT server.

4.12.3 Starting MySQL on NT

The Win95/Win98 section also applies to MySQL on NT, with the following differences:

To get MySQL to work with TCP/IP, you must install service pack 3 (or newer)!

For NT, the server name is mysqld-nt. Normally you should install MySQL as a service on NT:

C:\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt --install

(You could use the mysqld or mysqld-opt servers on NT, but those cannot be started as a service or use named pipes.)

You can start and stop the MySQL service with:

NET START mysql
NET STOP mysql

Note that in this case you can't use any other options for mysqld-nt!

You can also run mysqld-nt as a standalone program on NT if you need to start mysqld-nt with any options! If you start mysqld-nt without options on NT, mysqld-nt tries to starts itself as a service with the default service options. If you have stopped mysqld-nt, you have to start it with NET START mysql.

The service is installed with the name MySql. Once installed, it must be started using Services Control Manager (SCM) Utility (found in Control Panel) or by using the NET START MySQL command. If any options are desired, they must be specified as "Startup parameters" in the SCM utility before you start the MySQL service. Once running, mysqld-nt can be stopped using mysqladmin or from the SCM utility or by using the command NET STOP MySQL. If you use SCM to stop mysqld-nt, there is a strange message from SCM about mysqld shutdown normally. When run as a service, mysqld-nt has no access to a console and so no messages can be seen.

On NT you can get the following service error messages:

Permission Denied Means that it cannot find mysqld-nt.exe
Cannot Register Means that the path is incorrect

If you have problems installing mysqld-nt as a service, try starting it with the full path:

C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --install

If this doesn't work, you can get mysqld-nt to start properly by fixing the path in the registry!

If you don't want to start mysqld-nt as a service, you can start it as follows:

C:\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt --standalone

or

C:\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt --standalone --debug

The last version gives you a debug trace in `C:\mysqld.trace'.

4.12.4 Running MySQL on Win32

MySQL supports TCP/IP on all Win32 platforms and named pipes on NT. The default is to use named pipes for local connections on NT and TCP/IP for all other cases if the client has TCP/IP installed. The host name specifies which protocol is used:

Host name
protocol
NULL (none) On NT, try named pipes first; if that doesn't work, use TCP/IP. On Win95/Win98, TCP/IP is used.
. Named pipes
localhost TCP/IP to current host
hostname TCP/IP

You can force a MySQL client to use named pipes by specifying the --pipe option. Use the --socket option to specify the name of the pipe.

You can test whether or not MySQL is working by executing the following commands:

C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow
C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow -u root mysql
C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin version status proc
C:\mysql\bin\mysql test

If mysqld is slow to answer to connections on Win95/Win98, there is probably a problem with your DNS. In this case, start mysqld with --skip-name-resolve and use only localhost and IP numbers in the MySQL grant tables. You can also avoid DNS when connecting to a mysqld-nt MySQL server running on NT by using the --pipe argument to specify use of named pipes. This works for most MySQL clients.

There are two versions of the MySQL command line tool:
mysql Compiled on native Win32, which offers very limited text editing capabilities.
mysqlc Compiled with the Cygnus GNU compiler and libraries, which offers readline editing.

If you want to use mysqlc.exe, you must copy `C:\mysql\lib\cygwinb19.dll' to `\windows\system' (or similar place).

The default privileges on Win32 give all local users full privileges to all databases. To make MySQL more secure, you should set a password for all users and remove the row in the mysql.user table that has Host='localhost' and User=''.

You should also add a password for the root user: (The following example starts by removing the anonymous user, that allows anyone to access the 'test' database)

C:\mysql\bin\mysql mysql
mysql> DELETE FROM user WHERE Host='localhost' AND User='';
mysql> QUIT
C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin reload
C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root password your_password

After you've set the password, if you want to take down the mysqld server, you can do so using this command:

mysqladmin --user=root --password=your_password shutdown

If you are using the shareware version of MySQL under windows, the above command will fail with an error: parse error near 'SET OPTION password'. This is because the shareware version, which is based on MySQL 3.21, doesn't have the SET PASSWORD command.

With the shareware version you can set the password for the root user as follows:

C:\mysql\bin\mysql mysql
mysql> UPDATE user SET password=PASSWORD('your password') WHERE user='root';
mysql> QUIT
C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin reload

With the registered MySQL version you can easily add new users and change privileges with GRANT and REVOKE commands. See section 7.25 GRANT and REVOKE syntax. With the Windows shareware version on has to use INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE one the tables in the mysql database to manage users and their privileges. See section 6.13 Causes of Access denied errors

4.12.5 Connecting to a remote MySQL from Win32 with SSH

Here is a note about how to connect to get a secure connection to remote MySQL server with SSH (by David Carlson).

That's it. It works very well with a direct Internet connection. I'm having problems with SSH conflicting with my Win95 network and Wingate - but that'll be the topic of a posting on another software company's usegroup!

4.12.6 MySQL-Win32 compared to Unix MySQL

MySQL-Win32 has by now proven itself to be very stable. This version of MySQL has the same features as the corresponding Unix version with the following exceptions:

Win95 and threads
Win95 leaks about 200 bytes of main memory for each thread creation. Because of this, you shouldn't run mysqld for an extended time on Win95 if you do many connections, since each connection in MySQL creates a new thread! WinNT and Win98 don't suffer from this bug.
Blocking read
MySQL uses a blocking read for each connection. This means that: We plan to fix this in the near future.
UDF functions
For the moment, MySQL-Win32 does not support user definable functions.
DROP DATABASE
You can't drop a database that is in use by some thread.
Killing MySQL from the task manager
You can't kill MySQL from the task manager or with the shutdown utility in Windows95. You must take it down with mysqladmin shutdown.
Case-insensitive names
Filenames are case insensitive on Win32, so database and table names are also case insensitive in MySQL for Win32. The only restriction is that database and table names must be given in the same case throughout a given statement. The following query would not work because it refers to a table both as my_table and as MY_TABLE:
SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE MY_TABLE.col=1;
The `\' directory character
Pathname components in Win95 are separated by `\' characters, which is also the escape character in MySQL. If you are using LOAD DATA INFILE or SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE, you must double the `\' character or use Unix style filenames `/' characters:
LOAD DATA INFILE "C:\\tmp\\skr.txt" INTO TABLE skr;
SELECT * FROM skr INTO OUTFILE 'C:/tmp/skr.txt';
Can't open named pipe error
If you use the shareware version of MySQL-Win32 on NT with the newest mysql-clients you will get the following error:
error 2017: can't open named pipe to host: . pipe...
This is because the release version of MySQL uses named pipes on NT by default. You can avoid this error by using the --host=localhost option to the new MySQL clients or create a file `C:\my.cnf' that contains the following information:
[client]
host = localhost
Access denied for user error
If you get the error Access denied for user: 'some-user@unknown' to database 'mysql' when accessing a MySQL server on the same machine, this means that MySQL can't resolve your host name properly. To fix this, you should create a file `\windows\hosts' with the following information:
127.0.0.1       localhost

Here are some open issues for anyone who might want to help us with the Win32 release:

Other Win32-specific issues are described in the `README' file that comes with the MySQL-Win32 distribution.

4.13 OS/2 notes

MySQL uses quite a few open files. Because of this, you should add something like the following to your `CONFIG.SYS' file:

SET EMXOPT=-c -n -h1024

If you don't do this, you will probably run into the following error:

File 'xxxx' not found (Errcode: 24)

When using MySQL with OS/2 Warp 3, FixPack 29 or above is required. With OS/2 Warp 4, FixPack 4 or above is required. This is a requirement of the Pthreads library. MySQL must be installed in a partition that supports long file names such as HPFS, FAT32, etc.

The `INSTALL.CMD' script must be run from OS/2's own `CMD.EXE' and may not work with replacement shells such as `4OS2.EXE'.

The `scripts/mysql-install-db' script has been renamed: it is now called `install.cmd' and is a REXX script which will set up the default MySQL security settings and create the WorkPlace Shell icons for MySQL.

Dynamic module support is compiled in but not fully tested. Dynamic modules should be compiled using the Pthreads runtime library.

gcc -Zdll -Zmt -Zcrtdll=pthrdrtl -I../include -I../regex -I.. \
    -o example udf_example.cc -L../lib -lmysqlclient udf_example.def
mv example.dll example.udf

Note: Due to limitations in OS/2, UDF module name stems must not exceed 8 characters. Modules are stored in the `/mysql2/udf' directory; the safe-mysqld.cmd script will put this directory in the BEGINLIBPATH environment variable. When using UDF modules, specified extensions are ignored -- it is assumed to be `.udf'. For example, in Unix, the shared module might be named `example.so' and you would load a function from it like this:

CREATE FUNCTION metaphon RETURNS STRING SONAME "example.so";

Is OS/2, the module would be named `example.udf', but you would not specify the module extension:

CREATE FUNCTION metaphon RETURNS STRING SONAME "example";

4.14 TcX binaries

As a service, TcX provides a set of binary distributions of MySQL that are compiled at TcX or at sites where customers kindly have given us access to their machines.

These distributions are generated with scripts/make_binary_distribution and are configured with the following compilers and options:

SunOS 4.1.4 2 sun4c with gcc 2.7.2.1
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared
SunOS 5.5.1 sun4u with egcs 1.0.3a
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O6 -fomit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O6 -fomit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory
SunOS 5.6 sun4u with egcs 2.90.27
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O6 -fomit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O6 -fomit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory
SunOS 5.6 i86pc with gcc 2.8.1
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory
Linux 2.0.33 i386 with pgcc 2.90.29 (egcs 1.0.3a)
CFLAGS="-O6 -mpentium -mstack-align-double -fomit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O6 -mpentium -mstack-align-double -fomit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
SCO 3.2v5.0.4 i386 with gcc 2.7-95q4
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
AIX 2 4 with gcc 2.7.2.2
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
OSF1 V4.0 564 alpha with gcc 2.8.1
CC=gcc CFLAGS=-O CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory
Irix 6.3 IP32 with gcc 2.8.0
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
BSDI BSD/OS 3.1 i386 with gcc 2.7.2.1
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
BSDI BSD/OS 2.1 i386 with gcc 2.7.2
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

Anyone who has more optimal options for any of the configurations listed above can always mail them to the developer's mailing list at

RPM distributions prior to MySQL 3.22 are user-contributed. Beginning with 3.22, some RPMs are TcX-generated.

4.15 Post-installation setup and testing

Once you've installed MySQL (from either a binary or source distribution), you need to initialize the grant tables, start the server and make sure that the server works okay. You may also wish to arrange for the server to be started and stopped automatically when your system starts up and shuts down.

Normally you install the grant tables and start the server like this for installation from a source distribution:

shell> ./scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
shell> ./bin/safe_mysqld &

For a binary distribution, do this:

shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
shell> ./bin/mysql_install_db
shell> ./bin/safe_mysqld &

Testing is most easily done from the top-level directory of the MySQL distribution. For a binary distribution, this is your installation directory (typically something like `/usr/local/mysql'). For a source distribution, this is the main directory of your MySQL source tree.

In the commands shown below in this section and in the following subsections, BINDIR is the path to the location in which programs like mysqladmin and safe_mysqld are installed. For a binary distribution, this is the `bin' directory within the distribution. For a source distribution, BINDIR is probably `/usr/local/bin', unless you specified an installation directory other than `/usr/local' when you ran configure. EXECDIR is the location in which the mysqld server is installed. For a binary distribution, this is the same as BINDIR. For a source distribution, EXECDIR is probably `/usr/local/libexec'.

Testing is described in detail below:

  1. If necessary, start the mysqld server and set up the initial MySQL grant tables containing the privileges that determine how users are allowed to connect to the server. This is normally done with the mysql_install_db script:
    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
    
    Typically, mysql_install_db needs to be run only the first time you install MySQL. Therefore, if you are upgrading an existing installation, you can skip this step. (However, mysql_install_db is quite safe to use and will not update any tables that already exist, so if you are unsure what to do, you can always run mysql_install_db.) mysql_install_db creates six tables (user, db, host, tables_priv, columns_priv and func) in the mysql database. A description of the initial privileges is given in section 6.10 Setting up the initial MySQL privileges. Briefly, these privileges allow the MySQL root user to do anything, and allow anybody to create or use databases with a name of 'test' or starting with 'test_'. If you don't set up the grant tables, the following error will appear in the log file when you start the server:
    mysqld: Can't find file: 'host.frm'
    
    The above may also happens with a binary MySQL distribution if you don't start MySQL by executing exactly ./bin/safe_mysqld! You might need to run mysql_install_db as root. However, if you prefer, you can run the MySQL server as an unprivileged (non-root) user, provided that user can read and write files in the database directory. Instructions for running MySQL as an unprivileged user are given in section 18.8 How to run MySQL as a normal user. If you have problems with mysql_install_db, see section 4.15.1 Problems running mysql_install_db. There are some alternatives to running the mysql_install_db script as it is provided in the MySQL distribution: For more information about these alternatives, see section 6.10 Setting up the initial MySQL privileges.
  2. Start the MySQL server like this:
    shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
    shell> bin/safe_mysqld &
    
    If you have problems starting the server, see section 4.15.2 Problems starting the MySQL server.
  3. Use mysqladmin to verify that the server is running. The following commands provide a simple test to check that the server is up and responding to connections:
    shell> BINDIR/mysqladmin version
    shell> BINDIR/mysqladmin variables
    
    The output from mysqladmin version varies slightly depending on your platform and version of MySQL, but should be similar to that shown below:
    shell> BINDIR/mysqladmin version
    mysqladmin  Ver 6.3 Distrib 3.22.9-beta, for pc-linux-gnu on i686
    TCX Datakonsult AB, by Monty
    
    Server version          3.22.9-beta
    Protocol version        10
    Connection              Localhost via UNIX socket
    TCP port                3306
    UNIX socket             /tmp/mysql.sock
    Uptime:                 16 sec
    
    Running threads: 1  Questions: 20  Reloads: 2  Open tables: 3
    
    To get a feeling for what else you can do with BINDIR/mysqladmin, invoke it with the --help option.
  4. Verify that you can shut down the server:
    shell> BINDIR/mysqladmin -u root shutdown
    
  5. Verify that you can restart the server. Do this using safe_mysqld or by invoking mysqld directly. For example:
    shell> BINDIR/safe_mysqld --log &
    
    If safe_mysqld fails, try running it from the MySQL installation directory (if you are not already there). If that doesn't work, see section 4.15.2 Problems starting the MySQL server.
  6. Run some simple tests to verify that the server is working. The output should be similar to what is shown below:
    shell> BINDIR/mysqlshow
    +-----------+
    | Databases |
    +-----------+
    | mysql     |
    +-----------+
    
    shell> BINDIR/mysqlshow mysql
    Database: mysql
    +--------------+
    |    Tables    |
    +--------------+
    | columns_priv |
    | db           |
    | func         |
    | host         |
    | tables_priv  |
    | user         |
    +--------------+
    
    shell> BINDIR/mysql -e "select host,db,user from db" mysql
    +------+--------+------+
    | host | db     | user |
    +------+--------+------+
    | %    | test   |      |
    | %    | test_% |      |
    +------+--------+------+
    
    There is also a benchmark suite in the `sql-bench' directory (under the MySQL installation directory) that you can use to compare how MySQL performs on different platforms. The `sql-bench/Results' directory contains the results from many runs against different databases and platforms. To run all tests, execute these commands:
    shell> cd sql-bench
    shell> run-all-tests
    
    If you don't have the `sql-bench' directory, you are probably using an RPM for a binary distribution. (Source distribution RPMs include the benchmark directory.) In this case, you must first install the benchmark suite before you can use it. Beginning with MySQL 3.22, there are benchmark RPM files named `mysql-bench-VERSION-i386.rpm' that contain benchmark code and data. If you have a source distribution, you can also run the tests in the `tests' subdirectory. For example, to run `auto_increment.tst', do this:
    shell> BINDIR/mysql -vvf test < ./tests/auto_increment.tst
    
    The expected results are shown in the `./tests/auto_increment.res' file.

4.15.1 Problems running mysql_install_db

This section lists problems you might encounter when you run mysql_install_db:

mysql_install_db doesn't install the grant tables
You may find that mysql_install_db fails to install the grant tables and terminates after displaying the following messages:
starting mysqld daemon with databases from XXXXXX
mysql daemon ended
In this case, you should examine the log file very carefully! The log should be located in the directory `XXXXXX' named by the error message, and should indicate why mysqld didn't start. If you don't understand what happened, include the log when you post a bug report using mysqlbug! See section 2.3 How to report bugs or problems.
There is already a mysqld daemon running
In this case, you have probably don't have to run mysql_install_db at all. You have to run mysql_install_db only once, when you install MySQL the first time.
Installing a second mysqld daemon doesn't work when one daemon is running
This can happen when you already have an existing MySQL installation, but want to put a new installation in a different place (e.g., for testing, or perhaps you simply want to run two installations at the same time). Generally the problem that occurs when you try to run the second server is that it tries to use the same socket and port as the old one. In this case you will get the error message: Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Address already in use or Can't start server : Bind on unix socket... You can start the new server with a different socket and port as follows:
shell> MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/tmp/mysqld-new.sock
shell> MYSQL_TCP_PORT=3307
shell> export MYSQL_UNIX_PORT MYSQL_TCP_PORT
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> bin/safe_mysqld &
After this, you should edit your server boot script to start both daemons with different sockets and ports. For example, it could invoke safe_mysqld twice, but with different --socket, --port and --basedir options for each invocation.
You don't have write access to `/tmp'
If you don't have write access to create a socket file at the default place (in `/tmp') or permission to create temporary files in `/tmp,' you will get an error when running mysql_install_db or when starting or using mysqld. You can specify a different socket and temporary directory as follows:
shell> TMPDIR=/some_tmp_dir/
shell> MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/some_tmp_dir/mysqld.sock
shell> export TMPDIR MYSQL_UNIX_PORT
`some_tmp_dir' should be the path to some directory for which you have write permission. After this you should be able to run mysql_install_db and start the server with these commands:
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> BINDIR/safe_mysqld &
mysqld crashes immediately
If you are running RedHat 5.0 with a version of glibc older than 2.0.7-5, you should make sure you have installed all glibc patches! There is a lot of information about this in the MySQL mail archives. Links to the mail archives are available at the online MySQL documentation page. Also, see section 4.11.5 Linux notes (all Linux versions). You can also start mysqld manually using the --skip-grant option and add the privilege information yourself using mysql:
shell> BINDIR/safe_mysqld --skip-grant &
shell> BINDIR/mysql -u root mysql
From mysql, manually execute the SQL commands in mysql_install_db. Make sure you run mysqladmin reload afterward to tell the server to reload the grant tables.

4.15.2 Problems starting the MySQL server

Generally, you start the mysqld server in one of three ways:

Whichever method you use to start the server, if it fails to start up correctly, check the log file to see if you can find out why. Log files are located in the data directory (typically `/usr/local/mysql/data' for a binary distribution, `/usr/local/var' for a source distribution). Look in the data directory for files with names of the form `host_name.err' and `host_name.log' where host_name is the name of your server host. Then check the last few lines of these files:

shell> tail host_name.err
shell> tail host_name.log

When the mysqld daemon starts up, it changes directory to the data directory. This is where it expects to write log files and the pid (process ID) file, and where it expects to find databases.

The data directory location is hardwired in when the distribution is compiled. However, if mysqld expects to find the data directory somewhere other than where it really is on your system, it will not work properly. If you have problems with incorrect paths, you can find out what options mysqld allows and what the default path settings are by invoking mysqld with the --help option. You can override the defaults by specifying the correct pathnames as command-line arguments to mysqld. (These options can be used with safe_mysqld as well.)

Normally you should need to tell mysqld only the base directory under which MySQL is installed. You can do this with the --basedir option. You can also use --help to check the effect of changing path options (note that --help must be the final option of the mysqld command). For example:

shell> EXECDIR/mysqld --basedir=/usr/local --help

Once you determine the path settings you want, start the server without the --help option.

If you get the following error, it means that some other program (or another mysqld server) is already using the TCP/IP port or socket mysqld is trying to use:

Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Address already in use
  or
Can't start server : Bind on unix socket...

Use ps to make sure that you don't have another mysqld server running. If you can't find another server running, you can try to execute the command telnet your-host-name tcp-ip-port-number and press RETURN a couple of times. If you don't get a error message like telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection refused, something is using the TCP/IP port mysqld is trying to use. See section 4.15.1 Problems running mysql_install_db, and section 19.3 Running multiple MySQL servers on the same machine.

The safe_mysqld script is written so that it normally is able to start a server that was installed from either a source or a binary version of MySQL, even if these install the server in slightly different locations. safe_mysqld expects one of these conditions to be true:

Since safe_mysqld will try to find the server and databases relative to its own working directory, you can install a binary distribution of MySQL anywhere, as long as you start safe_mysqld from the MySQL installation directory:

shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
shell> bin/safe_mysqld &

If safe_mysqld fails, even when invoked from the MySQL installation directory, you can modify it to use the path to mysqld and the pathname options that are correct for your system. Note that if you upgrade MySQL in the future, your modified version of safe_mysqld will be overwritten, so you should make a copy of your edited version that you can reinstall.

If mysqld is currently running, you can find out what path settings it is using by executing this command:

shell> mysqladmin variables

or

shell> mysqladmin -h 'your-host-name' variables

If safe_mysqld starts the server but you can't connect to it, you should make sure you have an entry in `/etc/hosts' that looks like this:

127.0.0.1       localhost

This problem occurs only on systems that don't have a working thread library and for which MySQL must be configured to use MIT-pthreads.

4.15.3 Starting and stopping MySQL automatically

The mysql.server script can be used to start or stop the server, by invoking it with start or stop arguments:

shell> mysql.server start
shell> mysql.server stop

mysql.server can be found in the `share/mysql' directory under the MySQL installation directory, or in the `support-files' directory of the MySQL source tree.

Before mysql.server starts the server, it changes directory to the MySQL installation directory, then invokes safe_mysqld. You might need to edit mysql.server if you have a binary distribution that you've installed in a non-standard location. Modify it to cd into the proper directory before it runs safe_mysqld. If you want the server to run as some specific user, you can change the mysql_daemon_user=root line to use another user. You can also modify mysql.server to pass other options to safe_mysqld.

mysql.server stop brings down server by sending a signal to it. You can take down the server manually by executing mysqladmin shutdown.

You might want to add these start and stop commands to the appropriate places in your `/etc/rc*' files when you start using MySQL for production applications. Note that if you modify mysql.server, then if you upgrade MySQL sometime, your modified version will be overwritten, so you should make a copy of your edited version that you can reinstall.

If your system uses `/etc/rc.local' to start external scripts, you should append the following to it:

/bin/sh -c 'cd /usr/local/mysql ; ./bin/safe_mysqld &'

You can also add options for mysql.server in a global `/etc/my.cnf' file. A typical `/etc/my.cnf' file might look like this:

[mysqld]
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/var
socket=/tmp/mysqld.sock
port=3306

[mysql.server]
user=mysql
basedir=/usr/local/mysql

The mysql.server script uses the following variables: user, datadir, basedir, bindir and pid-file.

See section 4.15.4 Option files.

4.15.4 Option files

MySQL 3.22 can read default startup options for the server and for clients from option files.

MySQL reads default options from the following files on Unix:

Filename Purpose
/etc/my.cnf Global options
DATADIR/my.cnf Server-specific options
~/.my.cnf User-specific options

DATADIR is the MySQL data directory (typically `/usr/local/mysql/data' for a binary installation, or `/usr/local/var' for a source installation). Note that this is the directory that was specified at configuration time, not the one specified with --datadir when mysqld starts up! (--datadir has no effect on where the server looks for option files, because it looks for them before it processes any command-line arguments.)

MySQL reads default options from the following files on Win32:

Filename Purpose
windows-system-directory\my.ini
C:\my.cnf Global options
C:\mysql\data\my.cnf Server-specific options

Note that you on Win32 should specify all paths with / instead of \. If you use \, you need to specify this twice, as \ is the escape character in MySQL.

MySQL tries to read option files in the order listed above. If multiple option files exist, an option specified in a file read later takes precedence over the same option specified in a file read earlier. Options specified on the command line take precedence over options specified in any option file. Some options can be specified using environment variables. Options specified on the command line or in option files take precedence over environment variable values.

The following programs support option files: mysql, mysqladmin, mysqld, mysqldump, mysqlimport, mysql.server, isamchk and pack_isam.

You can use option files to specify any long option that a program supports! Run the program with --help to get a list of available options.

An option file can contain lines of the following forms:

#comment
Comment lines start with `#' or `;'. Empty lines are ignored.
[group]
group is the name of the program or group for which you want to set options. After a group line, any option or set-variable lines apply to the named group until the end of the option file or another group line is given.
option
This is equivalent to --option on the command line.
option=value
This is equivalent to --option=value on the command line.
set-variable = variable=value
This is equivalent to --set-variable variable=value on the command line. This syntax must be used to set a mysqld variable.

The client group allows you to specify options that apply to all MySQL clients (not mysqld). This is the perfect group to use to specify the password you use to connect to the server. (But make sure the option file is readable and writable only to yourself.)

Note that for options and values, all leading and trailing blanks are automatically deleted. You may use the escape sequences `\b', `\t', `\n', `\r', `\\' and `\s' in your value string (`\s' == blank).

Here is a typical global option file:

[client]
port=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
port=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
set-variable = key_buffer=16M
set-variable = max_allowed_packet=1M

[mysqldump]
quick

Here is typical user option file:

[client]
# The following password will be sent to all standard MySQL clients
password=my_password

[mysql]
no-auto-rehash

If you have a source distribution, you will find a sample configuration file named `my-example.cnf' in the `support-files' directory. If you have a binary distribution, look in the `DIR/share/mysql' directory, where DIR is the pathname to the MySQL installation directory (typically `/usr/local/mysql'). You can copy `my-example.cnf' to your home directory (rename the copy to `.my.cnf') to experiment with.

To tell a MySQL program not to read any option files, specify --no-defaults as the first option on the command line. This MUST be the first option or it will have no effect! If you want to check which options are used, you can give the option --print-defaults as the first option.

If you want to force the use of a specific config file, you can use the option --defaults-file=full-path-to-default-file. If you do this, only the specified file will be read.

Note for developers: Option file handling is implemented simply by processing all matching options (i.e., options in the appropriate group) before any command line arguments. This works nicely for programs that use the last instance of an option that is specified multiple times. If you have an old program that handles multiply-specified options this way but doesn't read option files, you need add only two lines to give it that capability. Check the source code of any of the standard MySQL clients to see how to do this.

4.16 Is there anything special to do when upgrading/downgrading MySQL?

You can always move the MySQL form and data files between different versions on the same architecture as long as you have the same base version of MySQL. The current base version is 3. If you change the character set by recompiling MySQL (which may also change the sort order), you must run isamchk -r -q on all tables. Otherwise your indexes may not be ordered correctly.

If you are paranoid and/or afraid of new versions, you can always rename your old mysqld to something like mysqld-'old-version-number'. If your new mysqld then does something unexpected, you can simply shut it down and restart with your old mysqld!

When you do an upgrade you should also backup your old databases, of course. Sometimes it's good to be a little paranoid!

After an upgrade, if you experience problems with recompiled client programs, like Commands out of sync or unexpected core dumps, you probably have used an old header or library file when compiling your programs. In this case you should check the date for your `mysql.h' file and `libmysqlclient.a' library to verify that they are from the new MySQL distribution. If not, please recompile your programs!

If you get some problems that the new mysqld server doesn't want to start or that you can't connect without a password, check that you don't have some old `my.cnf' file from your old installation! You can check this with: program-name --print-defaults. If this outputs anything other than the program name, you have a active my.cnf file that will may affect things!

It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the Msql-Mysql-modules distribution whenever you install a new release of MySQL, particularly if you notice symptoms such as all your DBI scripts dumping core after you upgrade MySQL.

4.16.1 Upgrading from a 3.22 version to 3.23

MySQL 3.23 supports tables of the new MyISAM type and the old NISAM type. You don't have to convert your old tables to use these with 3.23. By default, all new tables will be created with type MyISAM (unless you start mysqld with the --default-table-type=isam option. You can change an ISAM table to a MyISAM table with ALTER TABLE or the Perl script mysql_convert_table_format.

3.22 and 3.21 clients will work without any problems with a 3.23 server.

The following lists what you have to watch out for when upgrading to 3.23:

4.16.2 Upgrading from a 3.21 version to 3.22

Nothing that affects compatibility has changed between 3.21 and 3.22. The only pitfall is that new tables that are created with DATE type columns will use the new way to store the date. You can't access these new fields from an old version of mysqld.

After installing MySQL 3.22, you should start the new server and then run the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script. This will add the new privileges that you need to use the GRANT command. If you forget this, you will get Access denied when you try to use ALTER TABLE, CREATE INDEX or DROP INDEX. If your MySQL root user requires a password, you should give this as an argument to mysql_fix_privilege_tables.

The C API interface to mysql_real_connect() has changed. If you have an old client program that calls this function, you must place a 0 for the new db argument (or recode the client to send the db element for faster connections). You must also call mysql_init() before calling mysql_real_connect()! This change was done to allow the new mysql_options() function to save options in the MYSQL handler structure.

4.16.3 Upgrading from a 3.20 version to 3.21

If you are running a version older than 3.20.28 and want to switch to 3.21.x, you need to do the following:

You can start the mysqld 3.21 server with safe_mysqld --old-protocol to use it with clients from the 3.20 distribution. In this case, the new client function mysql_errno() will not return any server error, only CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR, (but it works for client errors) and the server uses the old password() checking rather than the new one.

If you are NOT using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, you will need to make the following changes:

MySQL 3.20.28 and above can handle the new user table format without affecting clients. If you have a MySQL version earlier than 3.20.28, passwords will no longer work with it if you convert the user table. So to be safe, you should first upgrade to at least 3.20.28 and then upgrade to 3.21.x.

The new client code works with a 3.20.x mysqld server, so if you experience problems with 3.21.x, you can use the old 3.20.x server without having to recompile the clients again.

If you are not using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, old clients will issue the error message:

ERROR: Protocol mismatch. Server Version = 10 Client Version = 9

The new Perl DBI/DBD interface also supports the old mysqlperl interface. The only change you have to make if you use mysqlperl is to change the arguments to the connect() function. The new arguments are: host, database, user, password (the user and password arguments have changed places). See section 20.5.2 The DBI interface.

The following changes may affect queries in old applications:

4.16.4 Upgrading to another architecture

If you are using MySQL 3.23, you can copy the .frm, the .MYI and the .MYD files between different architectures that support the same floating point format. (MySQL takes care of any byte swapping issues).

The MySQL data `*.ISD' and the index files `*.ISM' files) are architecture-dependent and in some case OS-dependent. If you want to move your applications to another machine that has a different architecture or OS than your current machine, you should not try to move a database by simply copying the files to the other machine. Use mysqldump instead.

By default, mysqldump will create a file full of SQL statements. You can then transfer the file to the other machine and feed it as input to the mysql client.

Try mysqldump --help to see what options are available. If you are moving the data to a newer version of MySQL, you should use mysqldump --opt with the newer version to get a fast, compact dump.

The easiest (although not the fastest) way to move a database between two machines is to run the following commands on the machine on which the database is located:

shell> mysqladmin -h 'other hostname' create db_name
shell> mysqldump --opt db_name \
        | mysql -h 'other hostname' db_name

If you want to copy a database from a remote machine over a slow network, you can use:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> mysqldump -h 'other hostname' --opt --compress db_name \
        | mysql db_name

You can also store the result in a file, then transfer the file to the target machine and load the file into the database there. For example, you can dump a database to a file on the source machine like this:

shell> mysqldump --quick db_name | gzip > db_name.contents.gz

(The file created in this example is compressed.) Transfer the file containing the database contents to the target machine and run these commands there:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> gunzip < db_name.contents.gz | mysql db_name

You can also use mysqldump and mysqlimport to accomplish the database transfer. For big tables, this is much faster than simply using mysqldump. In the commands shown below, DUMPDIR represents the full pathname of the directory you use to store the output from mysqldump.

First, create the directory for the output files and dump the database:

shell> mkdir DUMPDIR
shell> mysqldump --tab=DUMPDIR db_name

Then transfer the files in the DUMPDIR directory to some corresponding directory on the target machine and load the files into MySQL there:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name           # create database
shell> cat DUMPDIR/*.sql | mysql db_name   # create tables in database
shell> mysqlimport db_name DUMPDIR/*.txt   # load data into tables

Also, don't forget to copy the mysql database, since that's where the grant tables (user, db, host) are stored. You may have to run commands as the MySQL root user on the new machine until you have the mysql database in place.

After you import the mysql database on the new machine, execute mysqladmin flush-privileges so that the server reloads the grant table information.


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